The Fortune Cooker Project Plan

Fortune Cooker

In December 2012, a study on the global burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors brought to light that each year, 4 million people die from the household air pollution that is caused by cooking with solid fuels. To quote the United Nations Foundation on the subject: “Each day, around 3 billion people cook and heat their homes using open fires and inefficient stoves that burn solid fuels such as wood, animal dung, agricultural residues, charcoal, and coal. As a result, 3.5 million deaths are directly associated with Household Air Pollution each year. In addition, another 500,000 deaths from outdoor air pollution caused by cooking, with a large share of outdoor pollution in regions like Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa originating from household solid fuel use.” Not only does cooking on open fire form a health threat to its users, it also has an undeniable impact on the environment in the form of deforestation and high CO2-emission.
The Fortune Cooker is a clean cookstove that aims to eliminate the use of open fire or inefficient stoves as well as reduce the amount of fuel to be used during cooking. It does that by combining solar energy with a second power source, which can entail a variation on the rocket stove or a more common power source like electricity or gas. A function analysis of the performances of the product is to be found in appendix 1.
Ultimately the Fortune Cooker’s goal matches that of the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves: to make families cooking on open fire switch to cleaner, more efficient cookstoves, and thereby combat deforestation and reduce CO2 emission.

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Context, mission & scope

The mission of the project is to adapt an environmentally clean cooking device to the wishes and values of the customer, with the ultimate goal to reduce CO2-emission and deforestation by cooking on woodfire.

The mission of the project is to adapt an environmentally clean cooking device to the wishes and values of the customer, with the ultimate goal to reduce CO2-emission and deforestation by cooking on woodfire.

With this project, the Fortune Cooker is making its first steps towards being a product that offers not only a technical solution to the problem of cooking on woodfire, but also social and user-centered one. In its current form, the Fortune Cooker is a product that functions almost perfectly to its technological needs. However it has never been tested on its actual users before, which makes it hard to predict whether the product will be adopted by its target
group. And thus, whether the Fortune Cooker can actually serve its purpose.

In order to make the Fortune Cooker a product that can be successfully implemented in countries with high rates in cooking on open fire - to start with Morocco - the project team will perform the following activities:

Further analysis of local culture
It is important to understand the local’s habits on food, cooking, communicating, merchandising (trade), the local’s beliefs, morals, ethics, and all other aspects that even have the slightest overlap with the purpose and function of the product.

Test the technical aspects of the product
The Fortune Cooker has been tested several times by the inventors of the product, Maarten Romeijn and Jan Kluiver, but has yet to be tested by people who are less familiar with the product or not at all. Also, the product has not been tested yet in another climate than the Dutch’. The technical aspects will be tested by the project team itself.

Test the user experience of the product
The user experience of the product is one of the most important things to test. After all, the designers are both Dutch and the assumptions made during the design phase can differ even more from the habits and experiences of
the user than is normally the case. By performing in-depth tests, these assumption can be identified and eliminated.

Iterate the product
Aided by the results of the tests and analyses, the product is adapted to a product that better suits the user’s needs. Then the product will be tested again, and adapted again, and so on.

Research implementation of the product into the market
Explore local opportunities for producing the product. 
In order to keep the carbon footprint of the product as low as possible and to aid the local economy, we will search for opportunities to produce the final product locally. This is something that will specifically be helpful for future continuation of the product.

Explore local opportunities for selling the product 
While we’re there, we aim to find possible channels for distribution of the product. This is something that will specifically be helpful for future continuation of the product as well.

Create local awareness on the risks of cooking on wood
While we’re there, we want to motivate people to switch to (any way of) cleaner cooking by making them aware of the negative effects of cooking on open fire. This can also have a positive effect on the popularity of the Fortune Cooker.

We will not:
Implement the product in a local market
Start a workshop/production area in Morocco

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Portrait of the organization we work for

The Fortune Cooker project originated at Engineers Without Borders. Maarten Romijn designed the first concept of the Fortune Cooker, a device which uses solar energy exclusively. Jan Kluiver, another engineer from EWB took over the development of this product. Which resulted in the prototype, that uses both solar-energy and fuel, we will be testing in Morocco.

The Fortune Cooker project originated at Engineers Without Borders. Maarten Romijn designed the first concept of the Fortune Cooker, a device which uses solar energy exclusively. Jan Kluiver, another engineer from EWB took over the development of this product. Which resulted in the prototype, that uses both solar-energy and fuel, we will be testing in Morocco.

Fortune Cooker design by Maarten Romijn

EWB is an international federation of national EWB Member Associations all over the world. They all share the mission to partner with disadvantaged communities to enhance their quality of life through education and implementation of sustainable engineering projects while promoting global experience for engineers, engineering students, and similarly motivated non-engineers. (Who we are, 2015) 

The Dutch Member Association of EWB, EWB-NL, was founded as a division of the Royal Dutch Engineering Society titled KIVI. KIVI offers members the opportunity to work together, to exchange knowledge and to establish themselves. (Over KIVI, 2015) EWB-NL as a division focuses on the contribution of engineers in development countries. Their specific mission is: Improving well-being with technology. (About EWB-NL, 2015)

They also strive to promote expertise of engineers and technical students in the form of lectures, workshops and projects. (Beek, van, M., 2007)

This is where Jan Kluiver comes into play. He volunteers at EWB-NL and meets their mission perfectly by mentoring us towards the Fortune Cooker project in Morocco. He is very focused on the technical aspects of the products and we can provide the link between technology and user. Thereby is he very passionate about clean cooking and would he be prepared to start a company around the Fortune Cooker if it appears to be a success.

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Research while behind the desk

Moroccan culture is extremely rich and interesting. To obtain a better view on our destination, we have been doing some desk research on Moroccan history, food habits, social economic and demographic context, politics, recreation, religion and climate. Not only have we researched Morocco, we explored some of the Fortune Cooker’s concurrent. The most relevant articles are listed here, other interesting pieces
are to be found in annexes.

Socio-demographic context

Morocco has taken measurements to lower poverty rates and this has clear results, but the problem isn’t yet solved. Poverty rates dropped from 15,3 percent to 6,2 percent between 2001 and 2011, but this also contributed to an
inequality regarding different areas in the country and gender inequality (African Development Bank Group, 2015). For example, the income disparity coefficient raised from 39,5 to 40,9 between 1999 and 2007. Also, poverty remained mainly rural, whereas unemployment is an especially urban problem.
The Moroccan government should continue essential reforms and speed up implementation regarding justice, taxation, land law and education. Looking at the region Oriental, where our project will be, unemployment rates and the percentage of households below poverty line are striking. The unemployment rate for urban areas in Oriental was 19,3% in 2013. The unemployment rate for women 17,9% and those for men 15,9% (Open Data for Morocco, 2014). Considering this information on unemployment, an activity during the market research will be to explore opportunities on how tocontribute to regional employment by for example involving multiple local businesses. Another aspect we should consider is also how to not reinforce unemployment by taking away markets on for example selling bottled gas etc.

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Moroccan food culture

Considering the outcomes of the interviews done by Noor van der Vorst (2015), there is several useful information for our project. Firstly, it appears that women find it a big effort to collect wood and/or gas bottles and also the drying of the wood in wet periods is considered a problem. The wood gathering takes a lot of time, time that could be spend on other things when having to use little to no wood for cooking.
This is a problem we can respond to quite well with the Fortune Cooker. Another aspect of the cooking ritual we can respond to is the amount of cooking time. When using gas, the cooking time is quite short, but when cooking on wood
fire, the cooking process can take up to three hours. This process will be much shorter using the Fortune Cooker. An aspect we should consider is their day rhythm, as this is much different from ours, so we should adapt our rhythm to
theirs to get an understanding of how an average day looks like from the perspective of a Moroccan woman.

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Competitor analysis

COOX stove.jpg

The idea of ‘clean cooking’ is not new, there are already several devices designed and produced for clean cooking. In this paragraph we analyse the COOx; the most important competitor.


COOX
Functions: Grilling, baking, simmering, frying
Fuel: Little pieces of wood
Goals/results: Less smoke production to improve health reduction of CO2 and carbon black emission, reduction of deforestation, women spend less time
on gathering wood.
Way of selling: One sold COOX stove in the west means
one COOX stove for a developing country. The image of the product is to be a trendy cooking device for in your backyard, a garden or on the camping.
Other: Availablie in different sizes.
Price: €129,- on Bol.com


An advantage of the COOX relative to the Fortune Cooker is that any type of cooking is possible, whereas with the Fortune Cooker this has yet to be explored. The energy source is the same, but it can’t be combined with other energy sources, whereas this is possible with the Fortune Cooker. They mention other models that use other energy sources, but nothing can be found about these models. There is no model that combines multiples sources. The goals are about the same. It has a very different way of selling than we suggested for the Fortune Cooker and the price is relatively high, for ‘rich’ western people as well.

Conclusion
To make the Fortune Cooker a better cooking device than its competitors, we can primarily make use of the fact that the Fortune Cooker is the only hybrid device and we should try to lower the price as much as possible in order to get the product to a price which people in developing countries are able and willing to pay themselves. Also, we can explore opportunities to enable different ways of cooking.



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The climate in l’Oriental

climate-graph.png

The climate is an important factor in the use and operation of the product. The area in which the product will be tested is ‘la région de l’Oriental’, situated in the North-East of Morocco. 

The test locations are located in small mountain villages near Berkane. The climate in the region l’Oriental and Berkane is a Semi Arid Climate (lisd.org, 2015) . A Semi Arid Climate is characterized by limited erratic rainfall. The river Moulouya, is located in te region and provides water for agriculture. (Ibouhouten et al., 2010) The average temperature in the region l’Oriental is 18,2 °C and the average rainfall is 329 mm per year, of which July is the driest month. The temperatures are lowest in December and January, which could decrease to 6,6 °C during daytime. One of the most important aspects is the quantity of sun in Morocco. (Climate-data.org, 2015) During november, december and january the sun will rise between 7 and 7:30 am and sunset occurd around 5 and 5:30 pm. (Time Genie, 2015). The climate at the testing area will be quite dry and sunny, though the temperatures are not very high compared to Central Afrika. The outside temperature affects the cooling time inside the Fortune Cooker and thus has a significant impact on testing results. The same applies to the hours of sunshine as the sun is essential to solar-energy. The short winter days challenges the use of the product without solar energy.

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The problem, a concrete analysis

problemdefenition

The problem in general
As you have read in the introduction, the pollutive smoke from cooking on wood or inefficient stoves kills 4 million people every year. This is a major problem, and with that, one that probably needs more than one solution. The
Fortune Cooker aims to become one of these solutions. At this point, the product offers a cleaner, more efficient way of cooking (in relation to woodfire and inefficient stoves). It does so by combining solar energy with a second power source, which can entail a variation on the rocket stove or a more common power source like electricity or gas.

The project problem
In order for The Fortune Cooker to have any of the desired effect, it is essential that the people who used to cook on one of the previously mentioned cookstoves, actually want to use it. It may not come as a surprise that changing someone’s habits is not something that can easily be done.
How do we get the aspired user to want to use the product, and how can we achieve that they keep using the product? This is the question we will try to answer during this project.
The question itself can roughly be divided in two parts: how to get the product to fit with the user; and how to get the product to fit with the market. In other words, how do we make the user like The Fortune Cooker, and how can we make sure the user is able to buy the product?
Strictly speaking, the project itself is a problem analysis as well. The research that we will do in Morocco will give us insight in the problems our target group encounters while cooking or during daily activities, which in turn will help us in the design process. However, the problems that the women  of rural Morocco have with cooking on woodfire can be entirely different from the problems that are encountered in-for example-Ethiopia. So, we will use our target group in Morocco as our starting point. From there, we can figure out if and how the product can be adjustable to other countries where people still cook on woodfire.

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Project structure


Project structure

The project we will carry out in Morocco has multiple functions: to test the physical product on the people who are supposed to use it, to find out in what way the product can answer to the user’s needs, in what way these needs are connected to culture, and if there are any possibilities to bring the product on the local market. Our findings on the product and user needs, can directly be implemented in the evelopment of the Fortune Cooker. This makes the project an important part of the overall design process.

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Testing

First of all, it is important to acknowledge the use of a qualitative test rather than a quantitative one, considering that we’ll have to go in-depth with these tests in order to find out what kind of product would really fit our user. What you will read here is a summarized version of the test plan we will be executing on location.

First of all, it is important to acknowledge the use of a qualitative test rather than a quantitative one, considering that we’ll have to go in-depth with these tests in order to find out what kind of product would really fit our user. What you will read here is a summarized version of the test plan we will be executing on location.

Test process

Prepare
At this point, the current prototype of the Fortune Cooker is not yet suited for testing; there are too many actions that can’t be completed without an extensive manual. Therefore, we will test the product ourselves first, after which we will develop a prototype that is suitable for testing.

Simultaneously, we will do research on the user needs concerning cooking and all the activities associated with cooking. The user needs will be identified using two methods: the Krutus (Blom, 2015) and either the Focus Group or an interview(descriptions in appendix 5&6). The Focus Group has the objective to give a better understanding of what the users think and feel of selected - cooking related - topics. The ‘why’ and ‘how’ questions are important here. The Kroetoes will give insight in the desires and dreams of the users. If possible, we will try to implement findings of this research in the first prototype as well.

Testing & designing
Once the first prototype is ready for use, we will test it with our targeted user group directly. There’s a great chance that the users won’t use the prototype as we intended it to, but this is what this first test is for. By jumping in the deep at once, we can see what the user’s intuitive actions are. We will identify these by using the method User Observation (appendix 7).

After the first test, a second Focus Group can identify what the conscious experiences of the user where, if they have specific wishes for the product, and whether their opinion on cooking in general has changed now that they know of the Fortune Cooker.

By combining the results of the Kroetoes, Focus Group 1, Focus Group 2 and the first user test, it possible make to make a description of what would be the ‘ideal product’. However, does this ideal product fit with the technical properties of the product? This is a where a new design phase starts. The ideal product and the technical product have to be combined into one viable product. During this process, it might be needed to perform small user tests, mainly focussed on the intuitiveness of the actions that have to be performed. The result of this second design phase is a new prototype that can be tested on the same users again. By testing on the same users as well as on new users we establish a process of co-creation: the users see their advice and experience implemented in a new prototype. This helps to them to trust the end product, but it also keeps the project interesting.

This test is followed by a next one with an iterated prototype, then another with the next version of the prototype, etcetera, etcetera, until we have a product the users and the designers believe in.

Analyse
The final product we have discussed before is designed to
be suitable to the women living in rural Morocco. There’s no guarantee at all that it will work in another environment. For a successful continuation of the project, it is needed to analyse the extend in which the product is based on habits and needs specifically for the women in rural Morocco. What aspects of the product are essential for the performance of the product, and which aspects could be altered in order to make the product suitable for a different target group? An outcome could also be that the product cannot be altered to another target group without losing performance.

 

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Materials

...for the prototype
During the project, we will retrieve the majority of the necessary materials from local suppliers. On top of that, we will strive to mainly use recycled materials. Searching for suppliers may take some time, plus there is a chance that new prototypes require new materials. Therefore, searching and buying materials will probably prolong during the complete testing phase.

...for the product
As can be read in ‘Project continuation’, we have the aspiration to have the end product produced locally, with local materials. Contrary to finding materials for prototypes, the suppliers of materials for the final product should be able to deliver the materials for longer period of time, which makes the task somewhat more complicated. Also, the demands on the materials to be chosen for the end product are higher.
After all, we are talking about a product that should be used for several years at least. Once the first viable prototype has been developed, we can start searching of reliable materials and suppliers.

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Research on market implementation

Once we have established that the Fortune Cooker is a product that people in the targeted area have a need for, we can start searching for possibilities to bring the product on the market. To start, we will map the customer journey(for an explanation of this method, see appendix 8). The customer journey gives insight in all the stages the customer goes through before buying a product, which generally correspond with the five phases Osterwalder describes in Business Model Generation (Osterwalder, 2010). By being aware of the our customer’s journey, we can adapt the Fortune Cooker’s availability to the customer’s buying process. An even more thorough understanding can also enable us to influence the buying process. Next to knowing the customer’s journey, it is important to know how we can produce the product locally, in order to keep the Fortune Cooker’s CO2-footprint as low as possible. Therefore, we will search for local producers, or search for possibilities to set up local workshops. By combining the customer journey and the local possibilities for production, resource obtainment and trade, we aim to find to best possibility for setting up an independent venture.

 

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Project organisation

The Fortune Cooker Project holds several stakeholders in both the Netherlands and Morocco. They help us to assemble resources - both physical and immaterial - for example funding, knowledge and network. We aim to have equal expectations with every partner, which is for almost all these partners the case.

Engineers Without Borders

Our main partner is Engineers Without Borders, a renowned non-governmental organisation that has bases in several countries around the world. EWB was the initiator of the continuation of this project. It is an important partner for us because the weight of its name can give benefits when pitching our project to potential new partners and its communication channels can be used for awareness creation. We create value for EWB because our projects fits in their mission, which is ‘to partner with disadvantaged communities to improve their quality of life through education and implementation of sustainable engineering projects, while promoting global experience for engineers, engineering students, and similarly motivated non-engineers’ (‘Who We Are’, 2015)
Jan Kluiver is a member of EWB and he plays a major role in the project. He provided a contact person in Morocco, taught us about the technical aspects of the product and built the first prototypes as the inventor of the current design of the Fortune Cooker. The project in Morocco benefits him because of the research we will conduct to develop the product. Jan has the aim to eventually have a finished end product that can be successfully implemented. We can contribute to his aim with our TU Delft taught experience in user centred design, product development, and marketing.

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TU Delft, Minor International Entrepreneurship & Development

The project originated through a collaboration between Jan Kluiver and the minor program International Intrepreneurship & Development. The Minor IED prepared us for the experience abroad by for example making a Business Model and a course on sustainable development and culture. Also, we can make use of a free travel insurance provided by the TU Delft.
Iva Peša is our mentor during the project. She has  raduated
in history and she carries out research on frugal innovations in Africa with a focus on technology, innovation, local development and entrepreneurship (African Studies Centre Leiden, n.d.). Her experience mostly lies in projects in Zambia, one of which concentrated on the distribution of wood pellets. Such knowledge helps us assess the Fortune Cooker project.

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Students4Sustainability

Students4Sustainibilty is a Dutch student’s foundation for sustainability around the world. S4S is our main investor. They donate money to buy materials and tools for prototypes. In return,we try to make a successful contribution towards a more sustainable world. This corresponds with their mission, which is to contribute to the increase of prosperity in developing countries.

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Dutch Orientals

Dutch Orientals is a newfound organisation that aims to connect Dutch Moroccans to their home region: l’Oriental. Farida is the founder of Dutch Orientals and she helps us acquire several of our key resources, such as transport, accommodation, interpreters and contact with locals. The latter includes possible test groups, possible new partners or suppliers of materials. The Dutch Orientals help us because they find it important that health and deforestation issues in l’Oriental are addressed, which is something we can ensure for them. The project also contributes to forming a good reputation for them in Morocco

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Association Homme & Environment

We were brought in contact with the Association Homme & Environment by the Dutch Orientals. AH&E can bring us in contact with several test groups and can sometimes provide transport. We are important to them because we support the same cause: to address environmental and health issues in Morocco.

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Université Mohammed I (University of Oujda)

We were brought in contact with the local university by the Dutch Orientals. The university can provide us with interpreters, knowledge-exchange on solar energy and more scientific information on Moroccan culture, economy and governmental systems.

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Project continuation

Whether the Fortune Cooker project can be continued locally in Morocco is completely dependant of the acceptance of the Fortune Cooker by the target group. If it turns out the Fortune Cooker is suitable for this target group, a market implementation can be initiated. In this case, Morocco would serve as an example for other countries, where similar projects around the Fortune Cooker can be set up. Implementing the Fortune Cooker successfully in Morocco is a project on itself, as are the testing, adapting and implementing of the Fortune Cooker in other countries. 

One of the most important characteristics of a market implementation of the Fortune Cooker would be that eventually, it has to become a self-sustaining venture, without intervention from the Western world. Therefore, the product should be produced locally, preferably by producers trained and specialized in producing the Fortune Cooker. Resource obtainment and trade are also two activities that should be done locally. In addition, we believe the value-chain of the Fortune Cooker should be as short as possible for two reasons. First, we think that knowing the people who produce the product you want to buy would work very well in a ‘like knows like’ culture as the Moroccan culture. Second, we think it can encourage word-of-mouth-marketing. In the ideal situation, the goal would be to appoint a manager who can oversee the whole process, and specifically keep an eye whether the Fortune Cooker still answers to the user’s needs.

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Project risks, and the management of them

We made an analysis, that can be seen on the right, on possible risks for the project by using an x and y axis, which stands for respectively properties of the product and characteristics of people. Regarding the characteristics of people, we chose ‘open mindedness’ and ‘narrow mindedness’ as extreme values, as we consider this value essential for a successful completion of the project. For the same reason we chose ‘not sustainable’ and ‘(micro) sustainability’ as extreme values regarding the product properties.

We made an analysis, that can be seen on the right, on possible risks for the project by using an x and y axis, which stands for respectively properties of the product and characteristics of people. Regarding the characteristics of people, we chose ‘open mindedness’ and ‘narrow mindedness’ as extreme values, as we consider this value essential for a successful completion of the project. For the same reason we chose ‘not sustainable’ and ‘(micro) sustainability’ as extreme values regarding the product properties.

Risk Analysis

The upper right box represents our best case scenario, the other three give possible scenario’s, wherein the box on the bottom left is the worst case scenario. Within each of these three boxes, we chose the scenario(s) most realistic to occur, these are made bold. For these scenarios solutions will be proposed below. For the scenarios in the bottom left box, the solution is the same for all of them, so these are taken together.

Scenario 1: Open minded – Not sustainable
Locals aren’t able to cook on the product
The problem in this case is that the product does not fit the user. This can have several causes, namely; the food won’t get ready, users don’t know how to use the product, food burns. This requires another design and strategy. Therefore we have to analyse and observe the cooking process and adapt the product to these results. When the case is that the customer don’t know how to use the product, we can make a clear instructions, clarified with step-by-step images. When the food doesn’t get ready or burns, first we have to find out if this can be prevented by adapting the energy source and the space between the energy source and the pot. If this is not possible and it’s the type of pot that has the biggest influence, we can look for another customer segment who uses a different type of pot.

Scenario 2: Open minded – Not sustainable
The product burns down
When this event occurs, we could try testing the product somewhere else and we can simplify the prototypes and only when the different parts of the product are optimal improved we can use the whole product.

Scenario 3: Open minded - Not sustainable
The product does not function well, due to bad weather conditions
When the cause of malfunction of the product is the type of conditions in which it is tested, namely the climate, we will pick a different testing location more southern. When this event occurs, it means there are more specific requirements on the environment where the product can be used, so this should be implemented in the future business model. 

Scenario 4: Narrow minded – Not sustainable
People throw away the product; people deconstruct the product;
people don’t use the product due to technical failures and therefore also won’t help testing the user experience or other research; people disbelief the purpose of the product; due to technical failures. When one of these or more events occur, assuming we’re not able to change the product or the people, a successful completion of the project is not achievable. However, we may find another project on solar energy via the University of Oujda. Also, we can look for opportunities to create awareness under the local society on the risks of cooking on wood fire and the advantages of cooking with solar energy. This can be done for example by giving workshops or lectures at local women’s associations or environmental associations, but also an option is to give a kind of demonstration of the Fortune Cooker at a local market or something alike. Another option when one or more of these events occur, is to involve restaurants or other places where people can eat to bring the product to the attention.

Scenario 5: Narrow minded – (Micro) sustainability
Locals want to help testing, but won’t use the product after the research 
In this case we have to find out why these people don’t use it. It can be that the chosen customer segment doesn’t really need the product. Thus we have to find out what their needs are and maybe look for another customer segment whose needs can be fulfilled by using the Fortune Cooker. It’s also possible they don’t know how to use it. When this is the case, we have to provide clear instructions with step-bystep images.

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Sources

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• Blonk, M. (2012). Veteranen van de ‘Zand Oorlog’. Retrieved at 29 October 2015 from http://matthijsblonk.nl/paginas/Zand%20Oorlog.htm

• Boeijen, A., Daalhuizen, J., Zijlstra, J., & Schoor, R. Delft design guide.
• Courrier international, (2013). Mohamed vi le Roi des Pauvres depense sans compte. Courrier International. Retrieved at 27 October 2015 from http://www.courrierinternational.com/ article/2013/11/19/mohamed-vi-le-roi-des-pauvres-depensesans-compte
• Climate-data.org (2015). Klimaat: Berkane. Climate-data.org. Retrieved at 24 October 2015 from http://nl.climate-data.org/location/4342/
• Dris Ben Ali (n.d.) Civil Society and Economic Reform in Morocco. Mohamed V University, Rabat-Iqdal. Retrieved from: http://www.zef.de/fileadmin/webfiles/downloads/projects/politicalreform/Civil_Society_and_Economic_Reform.pdf
• El-Maarouf, M. D., el Fahli, M., Kuchejda, J., (2009). Morocco - Analysis of the Moroccan political system.
• Engineers Without Border (2015). Who we are. Retrieved 26 October 2015, from http://www.ewb-international.org/whowe-are/
• Geert-hofstede.com,. (2015). Morocco - Geert Hofstede. Retrieved 29 October 2015, from http://geert-hofstede.com/morocco.html
• Ghanem, H. (2014). Arab Countries in Transition: Support Inclusive Institutions.The Brookings Institution. Retrieved 29 October 2015, from http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2014/05/12-arab-countries-transition-inclusiveinstitutions-ghanem
• Guide to World Music, (2011). The Music of Morocco. World Music Network. Retreived at 29 October 2015 from http://www.worldmusic.net/guide/music-of-morocco/
• Hier.nu,. (2015). Coox – oplossing. Retrieved 29 October 2015, from http://hier.nu/coox/pagina/oplossing
• Ibouhouten, H., Zielhofer, C., Mahjoubi, R., Kamel, S., Linstädter, J., Mikdad, A., Bussmann, J., Werner, P., Härtling, J. and Fenech, K. (2010). Archives alluviales holocènes et occupation humaine en Basse Moulouya (Maroc nordoriental). Géomorphologie : relief, processus, environnement, (1/2010), pp.41-56.
• Infotalia.com,. (2015). MAROKKO - KEUKEN - EETGEWOONTES - TAJINE - KOKEN - MAROKKAANS. Retrieved 29 October 2015, from
• http://www.infotalia.com/nld/culinair/streekkeukens/marokkaanse_keuken/eetgewoontes_detail.asp?id=3031
• Instituten.leidenuniv.nl,. (2015). Over het NIMAR - Over het NIMAR - Instituten. Retrieved 29 October 2015, from http://instituten.leidenuniv.nl/nimar/over-het-nimar/over-het-nimar.html
• KIVI (2015. About EWB-NL. KIVI Engineering Society. Retrieved 28 Octover 2015, from https://www.kivi.nl/afdelingen/ingenieurs-zonder-grenzen/over-de-afdeling
• KIVI (2015). Over KIVI. KIVI Engineering Society. Retreived 28 October 2015, from https://www.kivi.nl/over-kivi
• bron van situatie 1912: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:Morocco_Protectorate.svg
• Kroesen, O. (2014). Planetary Responsibility: An Ethics of Timing. Wipf and Stock.
• Lawate, H. (2015). Sampada Gasifier Stove. Samuchit.com. Retrieved 29 October 2015, fromhttp://www.samuchit.com/clean-cooking-devices-h/sampada-gasifier-stove
• Lawate, H. (2015). Samuchit Sarai System. Samuchit.com. Retrieved 29 October 2015. from http://www.samuchit.com/clean-cooking-devices-h/samuchit-sarai-system
• Le Parisien, (2011). Maroc le Roi Propose une constitution democrat appel a des manifestations dimanche. Le Parisien. Retrieved at 27 October 2015 from http://www.leparisien.fr/flash-actualite-monde/maroc-le-roi-propose-uneconstitution-democratique-appel-a-des-manifestationsdimanche-17-06-2011-1498052.php
• Iisd.org, (2015). Arid and semi-arid lands: Characteristics and importance. Retrieved at 22 October 2015 from http://www.iisd.org/casl/asalprojectdetails/asal.htm
• Munson, Henry. Religion and Power in Morocco, 1993
• Open Data for Morocco (2014). Morocco Data Atlas, 16 January 2012. Retrieved from:http://morocco.opendataforafrica.org/syjypsf/morocco-data-atlas-16-january-2012
• Open Data for Morocco (2014). Unemployment rate of Morocco, 2011. Retrieved from: http://morocco.opendataforafrica.org/ixcaqae/unemployment-rate-of-morocco-2011
• Open Data for Morocco (n.d.). Population, Unemployment rate & Households below poverty line. Retrieved from: http://morocco.opendataforafrica.org/
• Reisgraag.nl,. (2015). Marokkaanse cultuur | Reisgraag.nl. Retrieved 29 October 2015, from https://www.reisgraag.nl/ vakantie-marokko/marokkaanse-cultuur
• Rijksoverheid.nl,. (2015). Reisadvies Marokko | Reisadviezen | Rijksoverheid.nl. Retrieved 29 October 2015, from https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/onderwerpen/reisadviezen/inhoud/marokko?utm_campaign=sea-t-reisadviezen-a-reisadviezen_marokko&utm_term=reisadvies%20marokko&gclid=CLKo8_eD48gCFQgGwwodqZcHIg
• Time Genie, (2015). Berkane, Berkane Province, Oriental,Morocco :: Sunrise Sunset. Retrieved at 24 October 2015 from http://www.timegenie.com/sunrise_sunset/city/maber
• Trompenaars, F., Hampden-Turner, C. (2001). Over de Grenzen van Cultuur en Management. Business Contract.
• Ump.ma,. (2015). Université en chiffres | Université Mohammed Premier ::: UMP ::: OUJDA. Retrieved 29 October 2015, from http://www.ump.ma/?page_id=36
• unknown, (2014). Morocco. European Forum. Retrieved at 27 October 2015 from http://www.europeanforum.net/country/morocco
• Veelzijdigmarokko.nl,. (2014). Cijfers en feiten over Marokko | Veelzijdig Marokko. Retrieved 29 October 2015, from http://veelzijdigmarokko.nl/cijfers-feiten-marokko
• Veiligheidstraining TU Delft, september 2015
• Vorst, van der N. (2015) Summary of Field Research in
Tghassrout, Tagma, and Bini Bouala for the Solar Cooking Project. University of Applied Sciences Van Hall-Larenstein, Rajae Gaamouche, University of Oujda

APPENDICES
Analysis of Competitors
• Hier.nu,. (2015). Coox – oplossing. Retrieved 29 October 2015, from http://hier.nu/coox/pagina/oplossing
• Lawate, H. (2015). Samuchit Sarai System. Samuchit.com. Retrieved 29 October 2015, from http://www.samuchit.com/clean-cooking-devices-h/samuchit-sarai-system
• Lawate, H. (2015). Sampada Gasifier Stove. Samuchit.com. Retrieved 29 October 2015, fromhttp://www.samuchit.com/clean-cooking-devices-h/sampada-gasifier-stove

Summary Previous Project
• Vorst, van der N. (2015) Summary of Field Research in
Tghassrout, Tagma, and Bini Bouala for the Solar Cooking Project. University of Applied Sciences Van Hall-Larenstein, Rajae Gaamouche, University of Oujda

The Basics of Cooking
• Vorst, van der N. (2015) Summary of Field Research in
Tghassrout, Tagma, and Bini Bouala for the Solar Cooking Project. University of Applied Sciences Van Hall-Larenstein, Rajae Gaamouche, University of Oujda
• Social Economic and Social Demographic Context
• African Development Bank Group (2015). Morocco  Economic Outlook. Retrieved from:http://www.afdb.org/en/countries/north-africa/morocco/morocco-economic-outlook/
• Open Data for Morocco (2014). Unemployment rate of Morocco, 2011. Retrieved from:http://morocco.opendataforafrica.org/ixcaqae/unemployment-rate-of-morocco-2011
• Open Data for Morocco (n.d.). Population, Unemployment rate & Households below poverty line. Retrieved from: http://morocco.opendataforafrica.org/
• Open Data for Morocco (2014). Morocco Data Atlas, 16 January 2012. Retrieved from:http://morocco.opendataforafrica.org/syjypsf/morocco-data-atlas-16-january-2012

Analysis of National Innovation Systems - Institutions
• Allaire, V., Ashta, Attuel-Mendes, & Krishnaswamy,. (2009). Institutional Analysis to explain the Success of Moroccan Microfinance Institutions. Working Papers CEB. Retrieved from https://ideas.repec.org/p/sol/wpaper/09-057.html
• Dris Ben Ali (n.d.) Civil Society and Economic Reform in Morocco. Mohamed V University, Rabat-Iqdal. Retrieved from:http://www.zef.de/fileadmin/webfiles/downloads/projects/politicalreform/Civil_Society_and_Economic_Reform.pdf
• Ghanem, H. (2014). Arab Countries in Transition: Support Inclusive Institutions.The Brookings Institution. Retrieved 29 October 2015, from http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2014/05/12-arab-countries-transition-inclusiveinstitutions-ghanem
• Instituten.leidenuniv.nl,. (2015). Over het NIMAR - Over het NIMAR - Instituten. Retrieved 29 October 2015, fromhttp://instituten.leidenuniv.nl/nimar/over-het-nimar/over-het-nimar.html
• Ump.ma,. (2015). Université en chiffres | Université Mohammed Premier ::: UMP ::: OUJDA. Retrieved 29 October 2015, from http://www.ump.ma/?page_id=364

Cultural and Civil Society Analysis
• Akesbi, A. (2011). Civil Society Index for Morocco. Analytical Country Report. International Version.
• CIVICUS, Espace Associatif. Retrieved from: http://www.espaceassociatif.ma/IMG/pdf/Morocco_ACR.pdf
• Geert-hofstede.com,. (2015). Morocco - Geert Hofstede. Retrieved 29 October 2015, from http://geert-hofstede.com/morocco.html
• Kroesen, O. (2014). Planetary Responsibility: An Ethics of Timing. Wipf and Stock.
• Trompenaars, F., Hampden-Turner, C. (2001). Over de Grenzen van Cultuur en Management. Business Contract.

Safety and Security plan
• Rijksoverheid.nl,. (2015). Reisadvies Marokko | Reisadviezen | Rijksoverheid.nl. Retrieved 29 October 2015, from https:// www.rijksoverheid.nl/onderwerpen/reisadviezen/inhoud/marokko?utm_campaign=sea-t-reisadviezen-a-reisadviezen_marokko&utm_term=reisadvies%20marokko&gclid=CLKo8_eD48gCFQgGwwodqZcHIg
• Veiligheidstraining TU Delft
• Veelzijdigmarokko.nl,. (2014). Cijfers en feiten over Marokko | Veelzijdig Marokko. Retrieved 29 October 2015, from http://veelzijdigmarokko.nl/cijfers-feiten-marokko

Leisure activities
• Los Angeles Times (1986). World Cup Soccer Roundup:
Morocco Gains the Second Round in a Stunner. Retrieved at 29 Octobre 2015 from http://articles.latimes.com/1986-06-12/sports/sp-10103_1_world-cup
• Matuska, N. (2010). The Development of Women’s Football in Morocco. Middle East Institute. Retrieved at 29 October 2015 from http://www.mei.edu/content/development-womensfootball-morocco
• Richford, R., (2015). Oscars: Morocco Selects ‘Aida’for ForeighnLanguage Category. The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved at 29 October 2015 from http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/


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